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Highlights from Collier's World Atlas and Gazetteer, 1947

Physical and Commercial Analysis of Canada,
and Newfoundland and Labrador

Collier's World Atlas and Gazetteer, 1947

Dateline: June 14, 2023.

GOVERNMENT. - The Dominion of Canada is a federal union of Provinces and Territories within the British Empire. It occupies all continental North America north of the United States except Alaska, which belongs to the United States, and Newfoundland (including Labrador), which remains outside the confederation and is at present a colony of the Empire. Greenland, an island north of Labrador, belongs to Denmark. The two small islands of Miquelon and St. Pierre, near Newfoundland's southern coast, belong to France.

    Canada is self-governing, with a chief executive, called the governor-general, appointed by the British Cabinet. He is assisted by a Privy Council. The Canadian Parliament, which is the supreme legislative power, consists of the governor-general, representing the British Crown, a Senate and a House of Commons. Senators are nominated for life by the governor-general, but the members of the House of Commons are elected by the people. A Parliament lasts five years unless dissolved sooner. Each Province has also a legislature called the Legislative Assembly, which is empowered to deal with local matters. The Province of Quebec has a second legislative chamber called the Legislative Council. The provincial chief executives, each known as lieutenant-governor, are chosen by the governor-general. Federal and provincial powers are defined by the British North America Act of 1867, which enabled the colonies of British North America to form a federal union under the name of the Dominion of Canada. The Dominion Parliament has exclusive power over all matters except those specifically delegated to the provincial legislatures.

    The British North America Act provided for the first time a constitution for a federal system adaptable to British principles and methods of government. The measure had its genesis during the American Civil War and aimed to avoid certain features of the American federal system which were deemed to be defective in practice. The Provinces were conceded less power than that enjoyed by American States, the federal government reserving to itself all other authority not so conceded. Bills passed by any provincial legislature require the assent of the lieutenant-governor before they can become laws and may be annulled within the year by the governor-general. Bills passed by the Dominion Parliament require, to become laws, the signature of the governor-general and may be disallowed by the British King in Council within a period of two years. This prerogative, however, has fallen into disuse.

    In practice, there is no such thing as Imperial control over Dominion affairs by the governor-general acting in the King's name, though theoretically the veto power of the Crown remains unimpaired. The British dominions are not "subject" but "sister" nations in the Empire, connected with the Crown by the governor-general. Field Marshal Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander was appointed governor-general on July 31, 1945.

Areas, Boundaries, and Population. - Canada is bounded on the south by the United States; on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, the waters between Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador, Davis Strait, and the waters between Greenland and Ellesmere Island; and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. All islands north to the Pole, except Greenland, are claimed, as well as Anticosti Island, Prince Edward Island, and Cape Breton off the east coast, and Vancouver Island and Queen Charlotte Islands off the west. The area of Canada totals 3,695,189 square miles, of which 228,307 are fresh water. The Dominion is divided into the Provinces of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia; Yukon Territory, and the Northwest Territories (subdivided into the districts of Mackenzie, Keewatin and Franklin). In 1912 the Provinces of Manitoba, Quebec and Ontario were enlarged by adding to them portions of the Northwest Territories. Quebec is now the largest Province, with Ontario second, and British Columbia third.

    The population of Canada was, by the census of 1941, 11,506,655.

Mount Chancellor from Kicking Horse Trail, 1947

Physiography. - Canada is divided into four large drainage areas: the Atlantic basin, the chief river being the St. Lawrence; the Hudson Bay basin, whose principal stream is the Nelson; the Arctic area, drained largely by the Mackenzie; and the Pacific basin, whose most important draining rivers are the Yukon and the Fraser.

    The eastern border is a highland formed by the Appalachian Mountain system. On the western side of Canada the lofty Cordilleran chain trends northwest and southeast from the southern boundary to the Arctic Ocean. Between these two mountain systems lies the vast Laurentian plateau. Near the center of it is Hudson Bay. Between the plateau and the high Cordilleran system lie the vast plains of western Canada. In the north from Davis Strait there are thousands of square miles of level country covered with tundra. West of the Rocky Mountains the surface comprises high ridges, valleys and tablelands. Southwestern Canada east of the Rockies is mostly prairie. The soil is fertile.

    The lowlands of Ontario and Quebec, draining into the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, form an important farming section. Gaspé peninsula with the neighboring maritime provinces constitutes another section with an undulating surface broken by wide valleys and interspersed with woods.

Climate. - Canada ranges from 42° N. to Arctic regions of perpetual snow and ice and also touches three oceans. The climate shows great variations. In the south and east the rainfall is ample, and there is a great range of temperature. Those sections are the forest regions. The Prairie Provinces, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, are subject to severe winters and hot summers. The rainfall in these Provinces is much less than in the southeast section, and irrigation or "dry" farming is in many places necessary for successful agriculture. Yet the great plains are over-spread with native grasses highly nutritious for livestock and capable of being cured into valuable hay; the Pacific Coast region - that is, the seaward side of the Rocky Mountains - has an oceanic climate, the range of temperature being small and the rainfall heavy. British Columbia has, for the most part, a milder climate than Nova Scotia, though the former province is in the latitude of Labrador.

Mineral Resources. - Canada has great mineral wealth, much of it undeveloped. Coal fields cover many thousand square miles, though the principal mines - in Nova Scotia, Alberta and British Columbia - supply only about 50 per cent of consumption. The natural gas and the chief gold mines are found in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia; the chief oil fields in Alberta, Ontario, and New Brunswick. Copper, silver, zinc and lead are mined extensively, while most of the world's nickel and more than half its asbestos are supplied by Canada. In 1944, Canadian mineral values reached a total of $485,924,000. Canada produced, in 1944, 2,922,911 fine ounces of gold; 17,118,000 tons of coal; 45,956,800,000 cubic feet of natural gas; 24,921,950 tons of sand and gravel; 10,071,100 barrels of crude petroleum; 13,627,109 fine ounces of silver; 7,190,851 barrels of cement; 547,944,000 pounds of copper; 275,213,000 pounds of nickel; 419,265 tons of asbestos; 152,291 tons of lead, and 275,412 tons of zinc. Other important mineral products are: platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, structural materials, clay products, salt, gypsum, sulphur, radium, and uranium.

Fisheries. - The fishing grounds of Canada border on two of the world's four great sea-fishing areas and comprise 5,000 miles of Atlantic and 7,000 miles of Pacific coast. In addition there are 228,000 square miles of fresh water. Developing since 1900 to its present magnitude, the fish industry reached its peak of value in 1943, at $85,594,544, an increase of more than $10,000,000 over the 1942 total. Chief catches are salmon, lobster, herring and cod. Between 60 and 70 per cent of the total catch is exported, in fresh, cured or canned form. Persons employed in the industry numbered 61,459. The values of the products by principal Provinces were: British Columbia, $32,478,632; Nova Scotia, $21,684,435, and New Brunswick, $11,128,864. The values by kinds were: salmon, $15,642,190; herring, $11,937,287; cod, $13,064,805; lobster, $8,228,533; whitefish, $3,575,923; halibut, $3,065,375; sardines, $3,003,796; pilchards, $2,756,416; haddock, $2,544,409, and mackerel, $2,274,137. Other fish of less value are pickerel, grayfish, saugers, trout, smelts, and swordfish.

Agriculture. - Agriculture is the most important single industry of the Dominion and engages about half the population. A great producer and exporter of grain, Canada ranks third and fourth among the countries of the world in yield of wheat and oats respectively. Its other leading field crops are barley, alfalfa, rye, buckwheat, flaxseed, hay and clover, potatoes, turnips, peas and beans, and fodder corn. The chief producers of grain are Ontario, Quebec, and the Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba). In the Prairie Provinces 90 per cent of the acreage is devoted to the growing of wheat, oats and barley. In the Great Lakes region orchard fruits, grapes and berries flourish. The total value of the Canadian commercial fruit production for 1943 amounted to about $30,835,000.

    The census report of the yield of field crops for 1944 was (bushels): wheat, 435,535,000 (556,134,000 in 1942); oats, 449,643,000; barley, 194,712,000; rye, 8,526,000; flaxseed, 9,668,000; mixed grains, 57,431,000; potatoes, 49,409,000 cwt.; hay and clover, 15,102,000 tons. The yield of fodder corn was 4,398,000 tons; of beans, 1,432,000 bushels. The alfalfa crop, negligible a few years ago, reached 3,783,000 tons. The aggregate value of all field crops in 1944 was $1,288,058,000, against $1,134,399,000 in 1943. At the close of 1944, Canadian agriculture was believed to have reached the peak of production, after five war years during which farmers had met the challenge of ever-increasing demands.

Dairying. - After field crops the chief sources of agricultural income are dairy products and farm animals. The Provinces grossing the highest income from farm products are Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta. The dairy industry has become increasingly profitable, and butter and cheese are exported in large amounts. Most of the creameries and cheese factories are located in the southeast Provinces, but dairy interests are expanding in Manitoba, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Canada is one of the most important manufacturers of cheese in the world. Farms and factories in 1944 produced 178,982,942 pounds of cheese, valued at $43,157,200. Creameries and dairies produced 352,831,925 pounds of butter, valued at $120,923,000. The total value of the Canadian dairy production for 1944 was $391,298,200.

Live Stock. - Much attention has always been given in the Dominion to the raising of cattle, horses, sheep and hogs. Herds of milk cows and of horses have been much improved in recent years. There were in the Dominion in 1944 by official estimate: 2,735,000 horses; 10,346,000 cattle; 3,726,000 sheep, and 7,738,000 swine. The wool clip for 1944 amounted to 15,128,000 pounds. Poultry products add considerably to the wealth of the country. There were in the same year 91,669,100 hens, chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese. In British Columbia rabbits are raised in large numbers for marketing.

Forestry. - The forest central line, starting from the shore of the Straits of Belle Isle, runs west, passing a little south of James Bay and thence northwest to where parallel 67 N. crosses Alaska's eastern boundary. The forest belt's average breadth is about 700 miles, and it is about 3,700 miles long. It is officially calculated that 275,200,000 acres are covered with merchantable timber of high grade. Much of the remainder can be utilized for pulpwood. The total forested area is about 781,056,000 acres. Forest products stand second in the list of Canada's most valuable resources, farm products being the first. The most common saw-timber trees are spruce (the pulp-paper tree), pine, fir, poplar, balsam, birch, tamarack, basswood, beech, ash, hickory and maple. (The Dominion's emblem is the maple leaf.) Spruce furnishes the larger part of the annual lumber cut, for the manufacture of wood pulp is rapidly increasing. White spruce trees are found in commercial timber size as far as 68° N. In the Queen Charlotte Islands there are large areas covered with Sitka spruce. This wood is extensively lumbered for its valuable timber. Vast quantities of manufactured lumber, such as boards, laths and shingles, are exported yearly to various countries of Europe. Next to the United States and the Soviet Union the Dominion has the world's largest forest resources. Warned by many destructive fires in the past, the Government takes care now to preserve the timber supply by utilizing airplanes in fire detection and the wireless telegraph to warn forest wardens of any conflagration. Portable fire pumps and other means are used to stop the fire's progress; and lastly, replanting is enforced in many cases. In 1943, Canada produced 4,363,575,000 board feet of lumber, valued at $151,899,648. The total value of lumber and all sawmill products was $195,885,336.

Manufacturing. - The Dominion's manufactures increased rapidly after the first World War. Since that time their value has more than doubled. In 1943 the ten leading industries, in the order of their gross value of production were: non-ferrous metal smelting and refining, $511,213,376; miscellaneous chemical products, $482,660,017; slaughtering and meat packing, $437,228,577; shipbuilding, $376,560,974; iron and steel products, $364,698,074; automobiles, $352,229,955; pulp and paper, $345,653,470; aircraft, $246,028,586; electrical apparatus and supplies, $245,770,859; and primary iron and steel, $23,951,059. In 1943 there were 27,652 establishments, with 1,241,068 employees, manufacturing products valued at $8,732,860,999. The most important manufacturing Provinces are Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia. Canada, since 1913, has led the world in the exportation of newsprint, Finland and Newfoundland following next in order. In 1943 Canada exported 2,810,288 tons of newsprint paper.

Water Power. - The present recorded resources for water power in Canada will provide for a total turbine installation of 51,350,000 horsepower. At the end of the year 1944 about 10,283,213 horsepower, or about 20 per cent had been developed. No other country possesses so much readily available water power. Many of the rivers have falls located near existing commercial centers, and vast hydro-electric power can be supplied at low cost for manufacturing purposes, as well as for city street lighting and household use. For instance, the Gouin dam across the St. Maurice River, Quebec, permits the storage of 160,000,000 cubic feet of water for hydro-electric use. This dam renders about 1,000,000 horsepower available for industrial uses, the flow of water being over 12,000 cubic feet a second. Numerous other large waterpower developments are under way.

Canals. - The principal canals of Canada are under the control of the Dominion Government and serve six routes. They have an aggregate length of 1,890 miles, the total of actual canal, however, being only 509 miles. One of the most important is the Welland Ship Canal, which connects Lakes Ontario and Erie and makes it possible for ocean traffic to reach the Great Lakes. Usually the steamboats and barges that use the canals carry only bulky merchandise - lumber, coal, grain and iron ore. Vessels from even Lake Superior ports can reach the Atlantic Ocean without breaking bulk. Up to the end of March, 1944, Canada's capital expenditures on her canals were $243,795,414. In 1944, the total volume of traffic amounted to 20,615,507 tons.

Transportation and Commerce. - Canada has an internal navigation system unequaled by any other country. Seagoing vessels may pass from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the heart of the continent by means of the St. Lawrence River, short canals, and the Great Lakes - over 2,700 miles of waterway. Port Arthur, the Lake Superior terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is 1,915 miles from Vancouver, the Pacific terminus of that railroad. Besides the St. Lawrence there are various other navigable rivers - the Ottawa, which flows into the St. Lawrence, the North Saskatchewan, the Assiniboine and the Red, which belong to the Lake Winnipeg basin. Lake Winnipeg's outlet, the Nelson River, which flows into Hudson Bay, is obstructed by rapids, but canals are to be constructed around these. A short water route from the grain districts of Canada to Europe will then be afforded by the Nelson River, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait and the Atlantic Ocean.

    The Dominion is well supplied with railroads. Two trunk lines run from ocean to ocean, the Canadian Pacific and the Canadian National. Railroads are being built in the Prairie Provinces, and there is a network of railways in the older sections of the country. The railway mileage in operation on December 31, 1943, was 56,825. In the Canadian National Railway System, the Government now operates a total trackage of 23,687 miles. Canada also has an excellent air service, extending from coast to coast.

Canada's Exports of Domestic Produce, 1943

Immigration. - Nearly every civilized country in the world has contributed immigrants to Canada. Asiatics - Chinese, Japanese, and Hindus - have found their way into the Dominion. Oriental immigration since 1901 has totaled about 93,000. Government statistics show over 50 nationalities represented in Canadian immigration during the past 30 years; but the British Isles and the United States have sent over two-thirds of the immigrants. Most of the English-speaking immigrants from across the Atlantic came from England and Scotland. About one-fifth of the number were natives of Ireland. Other nationalities represented in recent Canadian immigration are Italians, Germans, French, Poles, Hebrews, Dutch, Czechoslovakians, Scandinavians, Ruthenians, Russians, Belgians, Greeks, and Swiss. During recent years, immigrants have settled for the most part in the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario. In 1944, immigrant arrivals from the British Isles, United States, and other countries, totaled 12,801. Immigration was at its greatest peak in 1913, a boom year preceding the World War I period of 1914-18, when over 400,000 entered the country.

Education. - A system of free public schools is maintained by local taxation and government grants. Attendance is compulsory in all Provinces except Quebec. The schools are nonsectarian in Protestant communities. In the Catholic districts education is under control of the authorities of the Catholic Church. In Ontario Protestants, Roman Catholics and Negroes have the right to establish separate schools for elementary education, the local taxes for the support of these schools being separately levied and applied. In Quebec the religious minority in any municipality, whether Protestant or Catholic, may maintain its own schools, the taxation of the minority being separate from that of the majority. In the other Provinces there is also special provision for the education of Catholic children. Each Province regulates educational matters within its own borders. There are numerous high schools, universities, agricultural colleges and technical training institutions which furnish higher education. The Dominion provides for the education of the native Indian population and for the education of people outside of provincial boundaries.

History. - There is some evidence that a Norse exploring expedition under Bjarni Herjulfson touched the Labrador coast in 986 A. D. In 1000 A. D., according to the Icelandic sagas, Leif Ericson sailed along a North American shore which some historians have identified as the coast of Nova Scotia. John Cabot discovered the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1497. As he sailed under the English flag, England based her claim to the ownership of all North America on Cabot's vague description of his discoveries. Verrazano in 1524 visited the coast of southeastern Canada.

    The authentic history of Canada begins with the expedition of Cartier, who, under a commission from the French king, reached, in 1534, the land bordering the present Esquimaux Bay, an arm of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In the name of the King of France he took formal possession of the country. On a second voyage, made in 1535, he ascended the St. Lawrence River as far as the Indian village of Hochelaga, near the present site of Montreal. The first permanent settlement in Canada was made in 1605 at Port Royal (now Annapolis, Nova Scotia) by an expedition led by a French officer, De Monts. Samuel de Champlain, "the father of Canada," visited the country first in 1603, landing near the present site of Quebec. In 1608 he made a second visit and founded Quebec that year. This was long the chief city of "New France," as Canada was afterward called. French explorers had pushed through the untrodden wilderness as far as Lake Superior even before the Pilgrim Fathers touched Plymouth Rock.

    Although the country's population increased but slowly, the French settlements along the St. Lawrence introduced early there the forms of European civilization. Schools were opened at Trois Riviéres (Three Rivers) and Tadoussac in 1616. In 1620 the population of Quebec numbered only 60 souls. Yet the very next year the Province adopted a code of laws and established a registry of marriages, births and deaths.

    During the seventeenth century French Jesuit missionaries and French fur traders opened up the immense territory north and west, and called it New France.

    Acadia, settled by the French, was taken in 1654 by an expedition from New England but was restored to France in 1655 by the Treaty of Westminster. Canada (New France) prospered under the energetic rule of the Comte de Frontenac (1672-82, and 1689-98). Sir William Phipps and a force of New England troops captured Port Royal in 1690, but in 1697 it was restored to France by the Treaty of Ryswick.

    By the treaty of Utrecht, concluded in 1713, the Hudson Bay territory, Acadia and Newfoundland, were ceded to Great Britain. An estimate of the population made then gave New France 18,119 white inhabitants. Louisburg on Cape Breton Island, regarded as the strongest fortress in America, was taken in 1745 by a combined force of British and New England ships and soldiers, but was returned to France in 1748 in exchange for Madras, India. The year 1756 saw the beginning of the Seven Years' War, which was closed by the Treaty of Paris, concluded in 1763.

    Canada and its dependencies were then ceded to Great Britain. In 1775 the Quebec Act was passed. The outbreak of the American Revolution followed. Montgomery captured Montreal, but his attack on Quebec was made in a blinding snowstorm, and it failed; he was killed by a musket ball.

    In 1791 the Province of Quebec was divided into Upper and Lower Canada, each of the new Provinces having its legislature and lieutenant-governor.

    In the War of 1812-15, waged by the United States against Great Britain, Canada was invaded at several places by American troops, and indecisive battles were fought at Lundy's Lane, Frenchtown and Queenstown Heights. British and Canadian fleets suffered two defeats from American squadrons, one on Lake Erie by Commodore Perry, the other by Macdonough on Lake Champlain. The war was closed by the Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814.

    In 1837 there were uprisings in Upper and Lower Canada against the dominance of the ruling officialdom, and, while they failed, they stimulated the movement for full self-government that was eventually realized. Peace was restored, and the two Provinces of Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec) were united in 1841. The advantages of this union led to the formation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Newfoundland refused to join the Dominion.

    During the last forty years, despite two wars to which she contributed generously of men and money, and the depression, with its ruinous effects on world trade, Canada has prospered greatly - through industrial expansion and the development of her immense natural resources.

    On September 10, 1939, Canada declared war on Germany, and subsequently (June 10, 1940) on Italy when that country declared war on the United Kingdom and France, and on Japan (December 7, 1941) shortly after the Japanese opened their attacks in the Pacific. During the war the Dominion sent 285,000 soldiers overseas. Casualties totaled 102,954, including 37,964 dead and 2,866 missing. One of Canada's most important contributions to the war effort was the training of more than 150,000 combat pilots, a British Commonwealth project administered by the Royal Canadian Air Force and terminated March 31, 1945. Total war expenditures for the years 1940-1945 amounted to $14,909,728,000.


ALBERTA. - In 1905 parts of former Territories of Athabaska, Assiniboia, Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed into the Province of Alberta. The Province is bounded on the north by the District of Mackenzie; on the east by Saskatchewan; on the south by the United States, and on the west by British Columbia. Area, 255,285 square miles, of which 6,485 are water.

Population. - The population was officially given as 796,169 in 1941. The principal towns are Calgary, 88,904; Edmonton, on the north bank of the Saskatchewan, the Provincial capital, 93,817; Lethbridge, 14,612; and Medicine Hat, 10,571.

Physiography. - The northern region is heavily timbered, broken by patches of prairie, but is more hilly than the rest of the Province. The central and southern portions are open, rolling country, not timbered except along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. But the vast plains there are covered with prairie grasses, which form an important resource for the raising of stock. Two large drainage systems, the Mackenzie and the Saskatchewan, are represented in Alberta. The Milk River, which flows through 60 miles of Canadian territory, is connected with the Missouri system. The north part of the Province is well watered, the principal rivers there, the Peace and the Athabaska, having many tributaries. The largest lake is Athabaska, 2,062 square miles, of which 1,700 square miles are in Saskatchewan. There are 14,410 square miles of forest reserves.

Climate. - The climate is continental. In winter the mercury frequently stays below zero for days. But the Chinook winds - warm, dry winds from the west - blow often during the cold season and raise the temperature. Heavy snow disappears in a few hours, leaving the prairies dry. Summers are hot but short.

Mineral Resources. - The mineral resources of Alberta are very large. Vast areas are underlain with rich deposits of anthracite, bituminous, and semi-bituminous coal and lignite. The coal mines of Alberta already discovered are of sufficient extent to supply Canada for hundreds of years. The most important anthracite deposit is at Bankhead, where the Canadian Pacific Railroad has developed a mine of the best grade of hard coal. In 1943 Alberta yielded 7,676,726 tons of coal of all kinds, valued at $24,030,686. Other leading mineral resources and products are petroleum, natural gas, and structural materials. Total mineral output in 1943 was valued at $48,941,210; in 1944, at $51,376,959.

Soil and Agriculture. - Central Alberta is an immense territory of fertile, finely ground glacial drift topped by accumulated deposits of humus. The upper soil consists of from one to three feet of black vegetable mold, with little, or no mixture of sand or gravel. While Alberta has been pre-eminently a ranching country, ranching is rapidly giving way to model farming, with an extending system of irrigation. More than half the area of the Province is arable land, readily adaptable to the growing of grain - especially wheat, oats, barley, and rye. Peas and flax are also extensively cultivated. The cereals, being grown well north, are of the hard varieties and bring the highest market price. Alfalfa is a profitable crop in the irrigated areas. Other successful forage crops are timothy, blue grass and clover. Heavy production of field root crops, as turnips, carrots, mangolds, and sugar beets is the rule. In 1944, Alberta produced (bushels): spring wheat, 105,700,000; oats, 111,800,000; barley, 51,700,000; rye, 1,697,000; mixed grains, 1,619,003 flaxseed, 1,243,000; (cwt.) potatoes, 2,153,000. Of hay and clover the yield was 984,000 tons; fodder corn, 69,000 tons. The total value of all field crops in the same year, planted on an acreage of 13,991,250 (an acreage second in size only to that of Saskatchewan), was $233,622,000. In the value of its field crops, Alberta also ranks second among the Provinces, Saskatchewan being first.

Live Stock. - Next to ranching the most important branch of farming is the raising of sheep, hogs, and poultry. The live stock on Alberta farms in 1944 numbered: 603,000 horses; 386,000 milk cows; 1,357,000 other cattle; 1,023,000 sheep; 2,279,000 hogs; and 11,818,400 poultry. Poultry farming has become a highly successful industry. The annual value of its products is much greater than that of the wool clip.

Manufactures. - Alberta is steadily increasing its list of manufactures. Flour mills, beet sugar factories, breweries, oatmeal mills, and meat-packing plants have been established. There are numerous creameries in operation. In 1943 there were 1,133 industrial establishments with an aggregate capital of $111,682,419; the employees numbered 20,613; the wages paid amounted to $29,494,369; and the gross value of the products was $211,159,142.

Transportation. - Alberta is well served with railways, roads and means of communication. The Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railroads cross the Province and have branch lines connecting with important places.

    There is an extensive telephone system, which is owned by the Provincial Government, and a telegraph service under control of the railroads.

BRITISH COLUMBIA. - Situated on the northwest coast of North America, British Columbia is bounded on the north by the District of Mackenzie and Yukon Territory; on the east by Alberta Province; on the south by the United States, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska. Its average breadth is about 450 miles; its coast line is over 1,000 miles long. Its area, including Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands, totals 366,255 square miles of which 6,976 are water.

Population. - The 1941 census population of the Province is 817,861. Principal towns are: Victoria, the capital, 44,068; Vancouver, the largest city, situated on the coast of the mainland, 275,353; and New Westminster, 21,967.

Physiography. - The Province is crossed, south to north, by four principal mountain ranges: the Rocky Mountains, the Selkirk, the Cascade and the Coast Range. Important rivers are the Fraser, the Stikine, the Skeena, and the Columbia, which flow into the Pacific Ocean. Two other large streams, the Liard and the Peace, belong to the Arctic Ocean system. There are numerous lakes. These, as well as the rivers, occur in wide valleys between the mountain chains. The Pacific Coast is deeply indented with many fine harbors.

Climate. - The moisture-laden winds blowing from the Pacific Ocean and the Japanese current exercise a moderating influence on the climate of the Province as far as the Coast Range. Heavy rainfalls are common in this section. High air currents carry some moisture to the Selkirk Range whereon it falls in snow. Beyond these mountains there is but little rainfall, and irrigation is necessary.

Mineral Resources. - The mineral wealth of the Province is enormous. Coal is the chief mineral and it has been estimated that reserves total 75,000,000,000 tons; in 1944, 2,134,248 tons were mined. The copper production in 1944 amounted to 36,165,852 lbs. of ore, and gold, 191,423 fine ounces. Other minerals found are asbestos, arsenic, lead, building stone (marble, granite, sandstone), brick clays, and gypsum. Large deposits of iron occur on Vancouver Island. Total mineral production for 1944 was valued at $56,355,308.

Forestry. - No other area of equal size contains so much forest wealth as the woodland of this Province. The merchantable lumber is estimated at 367,000,000,000 board feet. The coast forests contain the heaviest stands of timber. The principal trees are the Douglas fir, red cedar, balsam, spruce, white pine and western hemlock, a wood much superior to the hemlock of the East. Smaller trees and trees of slower growth form most of the interior forests. These include western soft pines, western larches, hemlocks, lodgepole pines, spruces, balsams and cedars. But little hardwood is cut.

    The value of the lumber and all sawmill products of British Columbia in 1943 amounted to $83,069,697; paper production was valued at $15,968,062.

Fisheries. - The waters of the long and deeply indented coast line teem with fish. Salmon is by far the most valuable, though the British Columbia species is not a true salmon. Other fish of chief commercial value are halibut, herring, cod, black cod, pilchards, clams, crabs, sole, and oysters. The total value of the products of British Columbia fisheries in 1943 was $32,478,632.

Agriculture. - There are about 25,000,000 acres of arable land, all of which may be utilized for agricultural production, and an equal number of acres unsuitable at present for farming activities but available for grazing purposes. Some of the best of the farming land is still covered with timber. Where irrigation is practiced, the yield of grain is doubled. On irrigated land the harvest of root crops and alfalfa is also surprisingly large. Wild grasses grow profusely on open ground and afford good grazing for live stock, but the most nutritious cultivated forage crops - clover, timothy, alsike, brome grass and sainfoin, as well as alfalfa, are easily grown and repay cultivation for silo purposes. In the valleys there is considerable alluvial land, especially along the Fraser River. Here dykes have drained the soil and rendered many thousands of acres fit for tillage. The total value of field crops in British Columbia in 1944 was $22,287,000, planted on an acreage of 568,400. The principal crops are wheat and oats. The raising of leaf tobacco is a profitable industry. Fruit-growing is important in British Columbia, the 1943 production being valued at $12,847,000.

Live Stock. - Sheep are raised on Vancouver Island and on the lower mainland. Practically all of the cattle in the Province are reared under range conditions. But the days of huge cattle ranches are over. Small herds of high grade animals are preferred now. In 1944 there were on British Columbia farms: 62,000 horses; 96,000 milk cows; 285,000 other cattle; 148,000 sheep; 98,000 hogs, and 4,229,500 poultry.

Dairying. - In 1944, creamery and dairy establishments in the Province produced 7,312,299 pounds of butter, valued at $2,696,000. Factory and farm-made cheese amounted to 874,467 pounds, valued at $194,000. The total value of all dairy products for British Columbia was $17,906,000.

Manufactures. - British Columbia's manufactures are many and varied. Top-ranking are the timber and sawmill, the fisheries, and papermaking industries. Others of importance include meat, electric power, petroleum, and food products. In 1943 there were in the Province 1,961 manufacturing establishments with an aggregate capital of $450,360,048. Employees numbered 102,221. The gross value of production was $652,046,313. With great water power available, British Columbia had in 1944 a turbine installation of 864,024 horsepower.

Commerce. - Vancouver is the chief shipping port. Lines of steamers connect it with other cities on the Pacific Coasts of America and Asia. By means of the Canadian Pacific Railway it has transportation facilities for sending goods to Dominion ports on the Atlantic. This railroad is also connected with the railway system of the Pacific Coast of the United States. There are several branch lines. Prince Rupert, the western terminus of Canada's other great transcontinental line, the Canadian National, is also a seaport of British Columbia and a shipping point of importance. Steamers ascend the Fraser River as far as Fort Yale.

Education. - The British Columbia University, opened at Point Grey, Vancouver, in 1915, has an endowment of 2,000,000 acres set aside by the Legislature. It confers degrees in all branches except theology. Colleges in Victoria and Vancouver are affiliated with McGill University, Montreal.

MANITOBA. - Manitoba was created a Province with representative institutions by Act of the Canadian Parliament, effective July 25, 1870. Its boundaries were greatly extended in 1912. Manitoba is bounded on the north by the District of Keewatin, on the east by Hudson Bay and Ontario, on the south by the United States, and on the west by Saskatchewan. Its total area is 246,512 square miles, of which 26,789 square miles are lake surface.

Population. - The population (final census report) was 729,744 in 1941. Principal towns are: Winnipeg (chief city), 221,960; St. Boniface, 18,157; Brandon, 17,383; Portage la Prairie, 7,187; Transcona, 5,495.

Physiography. - The southern portion is a perfectly level plain, the bed of a former lake, through which flows the Red River. It is bounded on the east by the Laurentian plateau, which covers the eastern portion of Manitoba beyond Lake Winnipeg. Westward arises another prairie steppe, never more than 500 feet above the southern plain, and running in a northwesterly direction. To the north is a small belt of forest. Manitoba is about two-thirds prairie land. The water area includes Lake Winnipeg (260 miles long by 60 miles wide), and Lake Manitoba, Winnipegosis, and several others. The chief river is the Red River, which enters Manitoba from the south and flows into Lake Winnipeg; it is navigable as far north as the city of Winnipeg, and was in former days the only means of communication between the Province and the outer world. The Nelson River flows into Hudson Bay.

Mineral Resources. - Large deposits of copper sulphide ores have been found in several sections of the Province. Zinc, lead, gold and silver mines are being operated. Structural materials - sand, stone, and cement - are produced to a value of nearly $2,500,000 annually. Iron, molybdenum, salt, tungsten, and natural gas also occur. The total value of Manitoba's mineral output for 1944 was $13,728,126.

Climate. - The extreme range is from 40° below zero to 95° above. Average annual rainfall is over 17 inches, and snowfall (from November to March) 53 inches.

Soil and Agriculture. - Preeminently agricultural, Manitoba is fifth among the Provinces in production. Its soil is rich, black loam with a high percentage of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. To a great extent farming is done by machinery. "Manitoba No. 1 Hard" wheat, because of its superior milling qualities, has made the Province famous as a wheat producer. Other prominent crops are oats, barley, rye and potatoes. The estimated area of arable land is 25,000,000 acres. In 1944, its total field crops were valued at $147,764,000, on an acreage of 7,284,300.

Live Stock. - In 1944, the number of live stock on the farms in Manitoba was: horses, 290,000; cattle (including 387,000 milk cows) 993,000; sheep, 319,000; swine, 624,000, and poultry, 9,738,900.

Manufactures. - The number of manufacturing establishments in Manitoba in 1943 was 1,245. The amount of capital invested was $173,752,507; the number of employees, 37,003; salaries and wages amounted to $53,841,825. The cost of materials was $200,464,756, and the finished products were valued at $304,867,912.

Furs. - Winnipeg is the great fur market for western Canada. Millions of dollars' worth of furs are brought down each spring from the northland, and the dealers in Winnipeg, representing the great fur trade of the world, bid upon the packs offered. The fur catch of the Province alone was worth $3,242,655 in 1943.

Education. - In Winnipeg is the University of Manitoba, with affiliated colleges of St. John (Episcopal), St. Boniface (Roman Catholic), Manitoba (Presbyterian), Wesley (Wesleyan), and Manitoba (medical). At Brandon is Brandon College (Baptist).

NEW BRUNSWICK. - This Province is bounded on the north by the Province of Quebec and the Bay of Chaleur; on the east by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Nova Scotia, and the Bay of Fundy; on the south by the Bay of Fundy, and the State of Maine; and on the west by Maine and the Province of Quebec. It is about 250 miles in extreme length and 190 in breadth; in area, 27,985 square miles (including 512 water miles). It is the second in importance of the Maritime Provinces.

Population. - The 1941 Canadian census gave New Brunswick a population of 457,401, an increase of about 12 per cent above the figures for 1931. The chief towns are St. John (the largest), 51,741; Moncton, 22,763; Fredericton (capital), 10,062; Edmunston, 7,096; Chatham, 4,082; and Woodstock, 3,593.

Physiography. - Two lines of hills traverse the Prov- ince, one following the coast line of the Bay of Fundy, the other starting from the same southwestern district and running diagonally across the Province to the northeast. Between the two lies a low plain, sloping down to the east coast. The northwest region of the Province is a rolling country, fertile, and suited for agriculture. There are many fine rivers in the Province. The principal ones are the St. John River, which flows south from the extreme northwest corner and enters the Bay of Fundy near the boundary line of the United States; the St. Croix, which forms part of the boundary, falling into the Bay of Fundy; the Restigouche, flowing into the Bay of Chaleur; the Miramichi, into Miramichi Bay in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; and the Richibucto, into Northumberland Strait.

    A dense forest, principally of spruce and balsam, with an admixture of white pine, hemlock, yellow birch, maple, and beech, still covers much of the north, although the land is steadily being brought under cultivation. The forest area is over 21,000 square miles.

    There are many small lakes. The coast line is 545 miles long and indented by numerous bays.

Mineral Resources. - Extensive areas of granite, limestone and sandstone have been mapped. Coal, gypsum, natural gas, bituminous shale and salt are found and also rich deposits of bituminous coal of high grade. The amount of coal mined in 1944 was 347,032 tons. The total value of mineral products in 1944 was $3,428,966.

Climate. - The climate is healthful and dry (except on the coast) and one of great extremes. Temperature ranges from —30° to 95° F. Rainfall averages 40 inches. The northern part of New Brunswick has an annual snowfall of more than 100 inches.

Soil and Agriculture. - The soil, especially in the valleys, is fertile, and at the head of the Bay of Fundy the fertility is of a high grade. As lumbering has proved more remunerative than farming, the agricultural interests have been slower to develop.

    The total value of field crops in 1944 was $38,849,000 on an acreage of 992,700. The crops consisted chiefly of oats, barley, hay, potatoes, turnips, and buckwheat.

Live Stock. - The number of live stock on New Brunswick farms in 1944 was: horses, 47,000; cattle, 232,000; swine, 104,000; sheep, 111,000, and poultry 1,844,000.

Forestry. - Forest products to the amount of 303,706,000 ft. bm. were cut in 1943. They were valued at $11,042,769. The chief wood is spruce, the most commonly used basis of wood pulp.

Fisheries. - The fisheries, both sea and river, are extensive. Some of the finest salmon fishing in the world is to be had in the Province, the fishing on the Restigouche River being especially celebrated. Cod, lobster, haddock, mackerel, halibut, pollock, herring, and _sardines are abundant. Smelt fishing is an important industry. Fish packing has developed on an extensive scale. The value of the fisheries in 1943 was $11,128,864.

Manufactures. - The manufacture of wood pulp is a leading industry. There are also in New Brunswick manufactures of cotton and woolen goods, paper, machinery, and canned goods. Preserving, drying, and canning of fish are important.

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES (DISTRICTS OF FRANKLIN, KEEWATIN, AND MACKENZIE). - The Northwest Territories embraces all of Canada north of the 60th parallel east of Yukon Territory (including the islands of Hudson Bay and Strait and James Bay) except that portion of Quebec north of the 60th parallel. Its area is 1,309,682 square miles (including 51,465 square miles of water), its population, 1941 census, 12,028.

    It was divided (January 1, 1920) into the provisional districts of Franklin, Keewatin and Mackenzie. Franklin is the northernmost division; Mackenzie lies between Yukon Territory and Keewatin; Keewatin adjoins Mackenzie on the west and is bounded on the east by Hudson Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. It is governed from Ottawa.

    Much of the area is unexplored, though photography from the air has allowed mapping of the better known travel routes and the areas where minerals have been found. About one-third of the mainland is treeless, as well as all the Arctic islands. Silver, radium, copper, gold and coal deposits have been found, and are being increasingly mined, in the districts of Keewatin and Mackenzie, especially around Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes. Airfields have been established in Mackenzie district to expedite the work of exploitation, and for the mail. The chief output of the Territories, however, continues to be furs, pelts to the value of $3,165,107, having been taken in 1942-1943.

NOVA SCOTIA. - This Province is a peninsula connected with New Brunswick by an isthmus. It is bounded on the north by Northumberland Strait and the Gulf of St. Lawrence; on the east and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by New Brunswick, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the Bay of Fundy. In length it is about 300 miles; in breadth about 100 miles, with much variation. The island of Cape Breton, separated from Nova Scotia by the Strait of Canso, forms part of the Province. The total area, including a water area of 325 square miles, is 21,068 square miles.

Population. - The 1941 census gave Nova Scotia a total population of 577,962. Halifax, the capital, had a population of 70,488, and Sydney, on Cape Breton Island, 28,305. Other principal towns are Glace Bay, 25,147; Dartmouth, 10,847; Truro, 10,272; New Waterford, 9,302; New Glasgow, 9,210; Amherst, 8,620; Yarmouth 7,790.

Physiography. - The southern side of the Province is wild and rocky, covered with forests and dotted with small lakes. The cities and villages are situated on the coast at the heads of numerous bays indenting it. The surface of the peninsula is undulating, and although there are no mountains, there are several ridges of hills which traverse the country in an easterly and westerly direction. The plateau along the east coast rises from 600 to 1,000 feet high. The Cobequid Hills form the highest elevated land in the Province. Short, small streams are numerous, and there are numerous lakes. In Minas Basin, which penetrates the coast for 60 miles, the flow of the tide from the Bay of Fundy is very strong, and during the equinoxes the rise is often 50 feet. On the opposite shore, at Halifax Harbor, it does not exceed 8 feet.

Mineral Resources. - Minerals abound, embracing ores of gold, silver, lead, antimony, manganese, iron, and tungsten, as well as vast deposits of freestone, granite, porphyry, lime-burning rock, marls, and limestone suitable for cement, fluxing materials, such as silica and colomite, baryte, infusorial earth, porcelain, brick, and fire clays. In addition to these and exceeding all other sources of wealth are its deposits of coal and gypsum. Gypsum is found in several counties. The quantity is inexhaustible. Some of the deposits have been operated for nearly a century. In 1943 the coal output was 6,103,085 tons, valued at $27,121,861; gold, 4,129 fine ounces, valued at $158,967. The total value of the mineral output of Nova Scotia in 1943 was $29,979,837; in 1944, $35,313,438.

Climate. - On account of ocean influences there are no great extremes. The average temperature in summer is 45.6°, in winter, 25° F. It rarely reaches zero, Average rainfall is 38.1 inches; and snowfall, 75.4 inches. Fogs prevail along the coast. The climate is remarkably healthful and is the most temperate of all the Provinces of Canada.

Soil and Agriculture. - The Province is well adapted to agriculture and especially to the growth of fruit. The soils, with the exception of hilly districts, are alluvial and fertile. In the valleys, fruit and cereals are cultivated, oats, hay, barley, buckwheat, wheat and rye being the principal cereals, and apples the principal fruit. The value of field crops in 1944 was $20,313,000.

Live Stock. - In 1944 the number of live stock on the farms in Nova Scotia was: 36,000 hourses; 109,000 milk cows; 123,000 other cattle; 161,000 sheep; 66,000 hogs, and 1,978,400 poultry.

Forestry. - Nova Scotia holds fifth place in the Dominion's lumber production. Spruce and pine are the principal trees found in the Province, and their shipments to Europe and the United States form a considerable trade. Other important species are hemlock, birch, maple, and balsam. The value of forest products in 1943 was $7,679,588.

Fisheries. - In 1943 the fisheries of the Province, including lobsters, brought $21,684,435. The chief catches were cod, haddock, hake and cusk, pollock, halibut, herring, and mackerel.

Manufactures. - The leading industries of Nova Scotia are iron and steel, railway rolling-stock, fish curing and packing, pulp and paper, sawmills, and butter and cheese. There are numerous shipyards. Manufacturing establishments operating in 1943 numbered 1,278; capital invested, $179,363,703; employees, 37,445; wages, $55,205,712; and gross value of products, $188,463,088.

Education. - Colleges in the Province are: King's College, Windsor; Dalhousie College, Halifax; Acadia University, Wolfville; University of St. Francis Xavier, Antigonish; Presbyterian College, Halifax; Agricultural College, Truro; St. Anne's College, Church Point; and the Technical College, Halifax.

ONTARIO. - Ontario, the most populous and wealthy Province of Canada, is bounded on the north by Manitoba and Hudson Bay; on the east by Hudson Bay, James Bay, and the Province of Quebec; on the south by Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario; on the west by the Province of Manitoba. Its area is 412,582 square miles, of which 49,300 are water.

Population. - The 1941 population of Ontario was 3,787,655. Toronto, its chief city and capital, is the second city in size in Canada, with a population of 667,457. 1941 figures for other important Ontario cities are: Ottawa, capital of the Dominion of Canada, 154,951; Hamilton, 166,337; Windsor, 105,311; London, 78,264; Kitchener, 35,657; Sudbury, 32,203; Brantford, 31,948; Fort William, 30,585; St. Catharines, 30,275; Kingston, 30,126; Oshawa, 26,813; Sault Ste. Marie, 25,794; Peterborough, 25,350.

Physiography. - There are no ranges of mountains in Ontario, and the surface is undulating. The Laurentian Hills, including the Laurentian plateau, are to the north of the Province. The plateau, sometimes called the Laurentian Highlands, rises to a height of 1,200 feet. The southern half of the Province is part of the St. Lawrence lowlands. These lowlands, especially the western portion, the peninsula between Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario, form the chief agricultural district.

    The principal rivers are the Ottawa, which forms the boundary between Ontario and Quebec and flows into the St. Lawrence, and, in the northwest, the Moose and the Albany, flowing into James Bay, and the Severn and Winisk inte Hudson Bay. In the southern half of the Province there are no large lakes, but in the western part there are several - the largest being Lakes Nipigon, Nipissing, Simcoe and Lake of the Woods.

Mineral Resources. - In 1943 Ontario was as usual the chief mineral-producing Province, supplying more than two-fifths of Canada's total, with an output valued at $232,948,959. Of this the metallic minerals constituted $204,804,370. Gold was in the lead with a production valued at $81,512,777. Other 1943 mineral values are: nickel, $71,675,322; copper, $32,232,027; platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, $13,691,749; clay products and structural materials, $15,020,990; natural gas, $6,543,913; salt, $3,356,870, and silver, $1,208,879. The value of 1944 production, only $209,349,689, was less than that of 1943 by $23,000,000, and of 1941 by $58,000,000.

Climate. - The range of mean temperature is from 10° below to 90° above zero. The average temperature for January is 21°; minimum, 10° below zero; the average for July is 68°; maximum, 90°. The mean temperature at Toronto is 45° and the annual rainfall 26 inches.

Soil and Agriculture. - The soils are fertile loams and sand clays in the south; the black loam is of excellent quality and highly productive. The richest and most cultivated portion of the Province is the peninsula between the Ottawa River and Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron.

    Ontario is far and away the richest Province agricul- turally. Production of field crops from an acreage of 8,535,700 in 1944 was valued at $214,769,000. Oats, mixed grains, wheat, barley, husking and fodder corn, turnips, and potatoes are the most important crops. Ontario is the chief grower of garden vegetables in the Dominion and is second only to British Columbia in the production of fruits, apple growing being the mainstay of the fruit industry. Leaf tobacco is also important.

Live Stock. - Live stock in 1944 numbered: 507,000 horses; 1,188,000 milk cows; 1,557,000 other cattle; 737,000 sheep; 1,900,000 hogs, and 27,467,400 poultry.

Forestry. - Ontario ranks second and British Columbia first in the lumber production of Canada. The lumber cut of the Province for 1943 totaled 544,490,000 board feet, valued at $21,261,613, principally pine and hemlock. Wood pulp production totaled 1,490,966 tons, valued at $54,818,046. Woods cut for this purpose comprised principally spruce and balsam fir.

Fisheries. - Ontario shares with the United States the fishing advantages of four of the Great Lakes, and her smaller lakes are well stocked. The total value of the fisheries of the Province in 1943 was $5,292,268.

Manufactures. - Ontario is the chief manufacturing Province, owing to its splendid water-power resources and its nearness to the coalfields of Pennsylvania. Its important industries are mining, fruit farming, timber, pulp, furs, and meat-packing. It produces railway cars, cotton and woolen goods, flour, and wood products. In 1943 the number of manufacturing establishments totaled 10,587; capital invested, $2,994,953,988; employees, 570,017; wages $956,399,212; cost of materials, $2,288,871,511; gross value of products, $4,221,101,063. The available water power is about 5,330,000 horsepower at minimum flow. Turbine installation produces 2,673,443 horsepower.

Education. - There are several institutions for higher education: Toronto University with affiliated colleges; McMaster University at Toronto; Victoria University, Toronto; Trinity College, Toronto; Queen's College, Kingston; Western University, London; Ottawa University Agricultural College, Guelph; Royal Military College, Kingston.

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. - This is the smallest and most densely populated of all the Provinces of Canada. It lies in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is separated from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick by Northumberland Strait. Area, 2,184 square miles; length about 130 miles; greatest breadth, 34 miles. The 1941 population was 95,047. Charlottetown is the capital.

Physiography. - The coast line presents a succession of large bays and projecting headlands. The surface is undulating, nowhere over 400 feet high. Numerous streams and springs afford abundant water supply.

Climate. - The climate is much milder than the climate of the mainland. During summer the temperature ranges from 75° F. to 88° F, The average mean temperature is 43° F., the range from 10° to 80° F.

Soil and Agriculture. - The country is well adapted to agriculture. The land is generally level; the soil, generally red loam, is rich and of good depth. About 85 per cent of the people are engaged in farming. The total value of the field products for 1944 was $15,420,000, on an acreage of 467,000.

Live Stock and Dairying. - The number of live stock in the Province in 1944 was: 27,000 horses; 46,000 milk cows; 59,000 other cattle; 58,000 sheep; 66,000 hogs. Dairying is important. In 1944 the creameries and dairy establishments produced 4,512,756 pounds of butter, valued at $1,629,000; 1,072,432 pounds of cheese, valued at $242,200.

Furs. - Prince Edward Island, original home of the fur-farming industry, no longer holds supremacy, being surpassed by Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Alberta.

Fisheries. - The fisheries products for the year 1943 were valued at $2,860,946, the principal items being canned lobsters, salt herring, oysters, mackerel, and dried codfish.

Manufactures. - The manufactures are, with the exception of canning, principally confined to supplying local wants, and are chiefly linen and flannels. There are also flour mills, tanneries, pork-packing establishments, shipbuilding and ship-repairing yards.

Education. - Education is free and compulsory. For higher education there are Prince of Wales College, St. Dunstan's University, and a normal school.

Quebec, Lower Town and Chateau Frontenac with Dufferin Terrace, 1947

QUEBEC. - This is the oldest Province and the largest one of the Dominion. It is bounded on the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; on the east by Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence; on the south by the Bay of Chaleur, the Province of New Brunswick, the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York, and the Province of Ontario; on the west by Ontario, Hudson Bay and James Bay. The area is 594,534 square miles, including water surface of 71,000 square miles. The island of Anticosti and the Magdalen group in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, belong to the Province.

Population. - The 1941 census gave the Province of Quebec a population of 3,331,882. The chief city, Montreal, the largest in the Dominion, contains a population of 903,007, composed of a large number of racial elements. Quebec (150,757) the capital, has a population mostly French. The other principal cities are: Verdun, 67,349; Trois-Riviéres, 42,007; Sherbrooke, 35,965; Hull, 32,947; Outremont, 30,751; Westmount, 26,047.

Physiography. - The Notre Dame Mountains, a continuation of the Appalachian Range, extend along the whole south side of the St. Lawrence River. The Laurentian Mountains skirt the northern bank of the same river, finally running westward to the shores of Lakes Huron and Superior. The Province abounds in rivers, bays, and lakes. The St. Lawrence, the principal river, is navigable as far as Montreal. Above Montreal the St. Lawrence receives the waters of the Ottawa River, whose length is over 600 miles. The St. Maurice, which rises in Lake Oskelaneo and flows into the St. Lawrence, is over 350 miles long and remarkable for its flow of water and its falls. The Saguenay, rising in Lake St. John, flowing into the St. Lawrence at Tadousac, is one of the most noted streams in the world, and varies in depth from 100 feet to 1,000 feet. The largest lake in the Province is Lake Mistassini, 975 square miles in area. The principal islands of the St. Lawrence are the Island of Montreal and the Island of Orleans.

Mineral Resources. - In mineral production Quebec is second to Ontario. It stands high in the production of gold and copper, produces all the asbestos, and has rich stores of limestone and iron ore, cement rock and building stone, graphite, molybdenum, magnesite, sulphur ores and potter's clay. The mineral output for 1944 was valued at $87,416,810.

Climate. - The cold in winter is generally steady, the thermometer often registering 20° below zero; the snow lies on the ground from November to April. The mean temperature at Montreal is 42°, and the extreme range is from 20° below zero to 91° above zero, F.

Soil and Agriculture. - The soil is rich and loamy, in the large valleys of the St. Lawrence, the Ottawa, Matapedia, and Richelieu Rivers, and in the whole region of Lake St. John, and here farming is the chief industry. The lands adjoining northern Vermont are given to stock raising.

    The principal crops are wheat, oats, rye, barley, peas, beans, buckwheat, clover, hay, corn and vegetables. Apples, cherries, plums and pears are produced in large quantities in the southern part of the Province. The total value of all field crops in 1944 was $150,753,000, on an acreage of 6,802,900. Maple sugar and maple syrup were valued at $7,335,000 in this year.

Live Stock and Dairying. - Live stock in 1944 numbered: 344,000 horses; 1,071,000 milk cows; 959,000 other cattle; 638,000 sheep; 1,001,000 hogs, and 9,831,000 poultry. Dairying is an important industry, butter production in 1944 having amounted to 90,069,292 pounds, valued at $31,134,000; cheese production amounted to 61,277,599 pounds, valued at $14,994,000.

Forestry. - Quebec stands third in the production of lumber in the Dominion. The area of land on which lumber of merchantable value is to be found is about 203,490 square miles, of which 30,000 are covered with red and white pine. In 1943, Quebec produced 961,946,000 board feet of lumber, valued at $35,170,296; 2,617,403 tons of pulp and 1,986,865 tons of paper, the two having a total value of $211,898,066.

Furs. - The fur trade is important, 541,788 pelts, valued at $4,562,354, being taken in 1942-1943.

Manufactures. - Quebec has an abundance of water power. The Lachine Rapids above Montreal furnish power for large electrical works. Power is also furnished from the Richelieu River at Chambly. From these sources the power is derived for the operation of street railways, and also for the lighting of the city of Montreal. Shawinigan Falls, on the river St. Maurice, furnishes like service to the city of Quebec. The estimated available water power of the Province is 8,459,000 horsepower at minimum flow. Turbine installation produces 5,848,022 horsepower. The chief manufactures are wood pulp, paper, cotton goods, dairy products, leather goods, and tobacco articles. The number of manufacturing establishments in 1943 was 9,372; capital invested, $2,230,620,386; number of employees, 437,247; salaries and wages, $658,323,620. Materials costing $1,483,627,797 were used, producing finished products at a gross value of $2,852,191,853.

Fisheries. - The fisheries of Quebec are important, the principal fish caught being cod, herring, lobsters, mackerel and smelts. The total value of the fisheries for 1943 was $5,632,809.

Education. - There are numerous agricultural, commercial and classical schools, and four universities: University of Montreal, at Montreal; McGill University, at Montreal; Laval University, at Quebec; University of Bishop's College, at Lennoxville.

SASKATCHEWAN. - In 1905 parts of the territories of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, and Athabaska were formed into the Province of Saskatchewan, with a total area of 251,700 square miles, of which 13,725 square miles is water. It is bounded on the north by the Provincial District of Mackenzie, east by Manitoba, south by the United States, and west by Alberta.

Population. - Saskatchewan had a population of 895,992 by the census of 1941. In 1901 there were but 91,279 inhabitants. The principal towns are (final census): Regina, 58,245, the capital of the Province, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific, and the terminus of the Arcola branch from the southwest; Moose Jaw, 20,753, situated in one of the best wheat sections; Saskatoon, 43,027, at the junction point of the line running from Regina to Prince Albert; Prince Albert, 12,508, on the Saskatchewan River, near the center of the Province; Weyburn, 6,179; Yorkton, 5,5773 Swift Current, 5,594; North Battleford, 4,745.

Physiography. - Most of Saskatchewan is undulating prairie, with abundant streams and lakes. Reindeer Lake has an area of 2,436 square miles and is 1,150 feet above sea level. Lake Athabaska, part of which is in Alberta 690 feet above sea level, with an area of 2,842 square miles, is the largest. The principal rivers are the Saskatchewan, about 900 miles long, and the Churchill River, in the northern part, approximately 925 miles in length.

Mineral Resources. - Deposits of copper, gold and zinc are found in the east, coal in the south, and gold in the northwest of Saskatchewan. Other minerals existent are clays, glass sand, iron, mineral pigments, natural gas, petroleum, peat and salt. The total output in 1944 was valued at $22,224,032.

Climate. - The atmosphere is dry and clear. Winters are long and cold, summers short and hot. The mean summer temperature at Battleford is 61.4°, winter 7.1°. The central portion of the Province is much colder. Soil and Agriculture. - The southern half of the Province may be divided into agricultural and grazing sections. The eastern portion is a continuation westward of the grain-growing areas of Manitoba. The soil is rich, the climate matures plant life rapidly. There is an absence of rust, due to dryness of climate, and almost a total absence of insect foes. Wheat is the staple cereal; oats, barley, and root crops are also grown in large quantities.

    In 1944, the acreage and yield of the principal field crops were as follows: wheat, 13,200,000 acres, 250,000,000 bushels; oats, 5,640,000 acres, 198,000,000 bushels; flaxseed, 939,000 acres, 6,400,000 bushels; potatoes, 41,000 acres, 2,246,000 cwt.; hay and clover, 346,000 acres, 565,000 tons; barley, 2,699,000 acres; 72,000,000 bushels; rye, 398,000 acres, 4,800,000 bushels; turnips, etc., 4,000 acres, 369,000 cwt. The value of farm crops in 1944 was estimated at $444,281,000 on a total acreage of 23,535,200.

Live Stock and Dairying. - Live stock on Saskatchewan farms in 1944 numbered: 819,000 horses; 529,000 milk cows; 1,356,000 other cattle; 531,000 sheep, 1,600,000 hogs, and 20,703,100 poultry. Dairying has proved most successful, especially in the eastern and northeastern districts, where mixed farming is eminently suitable. Dairy products in 1944 were valued at $38,526,000, butter alone being valued at $20,703,100.

Fisheries. - The series of lakes north of the Saskatchewan River are well stocked with fish. Pike, lake trout, sturgeon, and whitefish abound. The value of the fisheries for 1943 was $1,154,544.

Manufactures. - The number of manufacturing establishments in Saskatchewan in 1943 was 976; the amount of capital invested, $60,674,093; number of employees, 11,683; wages, $16,445,866; cost of materials, $111,193,185; and the gross value of the finished products, $152,123,360.

YUKON TERRITORY. - The most northwesterly division of Canada, the Yukon Territory is in area 207,076 square miles, 1,730 of which is water. It is bounded on the south by British Columbia, on the west by Alaska, on the north by the Arctic Ocean, and on the east by the Northwest Territories. Most of it is mountainous and the climate is extremely cold, except in the south where it is warm enough in season for green vegetable and grain growing.

    The chief towns are Dawson, center of placer-mining, Mayo, center of silver-lead mining, and Whitehorse, center of distribution and traffic junction. Airplanes are now an important means of travel, and a series of landing fields has been established. There is a railway from Skagway to Whitehorse. Near the larger places roads for year-round use are maintained. The territory has some 1,250 miles of connected waterways.

    The discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1896 - still the most productive mining locality - brought a rush of population (27,219 in 1901), which declined with the exhaustion of placer gold (8,512 in 1911, 4,914 in 1941). Mining remains the most important industry; about $200,000,000 worth of gold alone has been taken from the Yukon. Silver and lead are also mined in quantities. In 1944, 24,306 fine ounces of gold were produced, valued at $935,781, and 32,735 fine ounces of silver, valued at $14,076. Total value of mineral production in 1944 was $954,850, $3,000,000 less than in 1942. The fur trade is important to the Province.


    Newfoundland with its dependency, Labrador, is a colony of the British Empire.

    The island of Newfoundland is situated off the eastern coast of North America between lat. 46° 37' and 51° 39' N., and long. 52° 25' and 59° 25' West. It lies directly northeast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Labrador lies on the mainland across the Strait of Belle Isle, bounded south and west by Quebec and east by the Atlantic Ocean. The length of Newfoundland from north to south is 317 miles, and the average breadth is 130 miles. The area is 42,734 square miles, and that of Labrador 112,400, making a total of 155,134 square miles. The population of Newfoundland in 1945 was 312,889; of Labrador 4,716, totaling 317,605. The Eskimo population numbers about 1,300.

    The chief towns are St. John's, the capital, Corner Brook, Grand Falls, Bonavista, Carbonear, and Twillingate. The airport at Gander is the chief relay station for commercial flights across the North Atlantic.

    From World War I to 1933 Newfoundland, with its dependency Labrador, enjoyed the status of a Dominion in the British Commonwealth. Dominion status was then suspended, because of Newfoundland's grave financial difficulties, until the colony should again become self-supporting. Under the Newfoundland Bill of 1933, passed by the British Legislature, full legislative and executive power is vested in the governor, who is advised by a commission of six members, three from Newfoundland and three from the United Kingdom.

    During World War II Newfoundland's economic situation improved through increased exports and the establishment of United States and Canadian military bases. In 1946 Great Britain moved toward restoring self-government to the colony. Delegates were elected to a national convention which met in September. A plebiscite on the future form of government was scheduled for 1947.

    Fishing is the most important industry in Newfoundland, the chief catches being cod, whale, seal, lobster, herring, salmon, haddock, trout, and mackerel. Total value of the annual catch is about $16,000,000.

    The mineral resources of Newfoundland are considerable. Extensive deposits of iron and copper are worked. Timber resources contribute largely to the volume of the colony's exports. Approximately 300,000 short tons of newsprint are produced annually.

    Newfoundland was discovered by John Cabot on June 24, 1497. Final recognition of England's claims to the island dates from the Treaty of Utrecht, 1713.

    In Labrador, surveys some years ago disclosed immense resources of timber suitable for pulp and paper manufacture. These discoveries led to a revival of efforts to determine the boundary line between the Labrador territory of Newfoundland and the Canadian Province of Quebec, and in 1927 it was finally established. Fish and furs yield a good income, and the as yet undeveloped mineral resources are believed to be of great value.